Acute diarrhea is defined as the discharge of bowel movements once or more in the form of a liquid in a day and lasted less than fourteen days. Diarrhea is a condition that is not normal stool expenditure, usually characterized by increased volume, dilution and frequency of bowel movements more than 3 times a day with or without mucus and blood.The presence of food that can not be absorbed by the intestinal lumen will cause osmotic pressure in the cavity resulting in increased intestinal absorption of water and electrolytes into the intestinal cavity. Excessive intestinal cavity contents will stimulate the intestine to release it, causing diarrhea. Non-pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal lumen (often called intestinal flora) can cause diarrhea. Normally through the process of fermentation of non-pathogenic intestinal bacteria metabolize a variety of substrates, especially of food substances with the end result of fatty acids and gases.The anaerobic metabolism will provide additional energy for the body. Due to intestinal stasis, obstruction and malnutrition lead to an increase in the number of non-pathogenic bacteria so that the fermentation process food substances produce metabolites that are not wanted by the body. For example: lactose (from milk) is a good food for the non-pathogenic bacteria. Lactose will be fermented to produce gas and cause gastric distension.Result of the high concentration of lactose causes an osmotic pressure in the intestinal lumen increases. Hyperosmolar state will absorb water from the intra-cellular, followed by an increase in intestinal peristalsis resulting in diarrhea.5 Nursing Diagnosis related to Acute Diarrhea1. Nursing Diagnosis : Deficient Fluid Volume related to excessive fluid loss through the stool or vomitcharacterized by :Subjective data :
thirst , nausea , anorexia .Objective data :
Inadequacy of oral fluid intake
Negative balance between intake and output
Dry mucous membranes
Decreased urine output
Decrease in skin turgor
Increase in serum sodium2. Nursing Diagnosis : Imbalanced Nutrition: less than body requirementsrelated to loss of fluids through diarrhea, inadequate intake is characterized by :Subjective data :
Family clients reported a portion of food that is spent.
Abdominal cramps.Objective data :
Weight loss below ideal body weight.
Upper arm circumference below the ideal.
Decrease in serum albumin.3. Nursing Diagnosis : Risk for infectionrelated to microorganisms that penetrate the gastrointestinal tract .4. Nursing Diagnosis : Impaired skin integrity : perianalrelated to irritation from diarrheacharacterized by :Subjective data :
Changes in comfort : pain, itchingData obtektif :
Damage to the skin layer ( dermis ) : lesions and skin irritation due to diaper.
Perianal area moist and redness.5. Nursing Diagnosis : Anxiety / fearrelatde to separation from parents , unfamiliar environment , stressful procedurecharacterized by :Subjective data :
Reported feelings of anxiety , fearObjective data :
Focus on yourself
Less eye contact
Increased respiratory and pulse