Nutrition is the process of making essential nutrients (Nancy Nuwer Konstantinides).The sum of all interactions between organisms and the food consumed (Cristin and Gregar 1985).In other words, nutrition is what people eat and how to use the body.Communities obtain food or nutrients essential to the growth and defense of all body tissues and normalize the function of all body processes.Nutrition is an organic substance required for normal functioning of the organism body systems, growth, maintenance of health. Nutrients obtained from food and liquids are subsequently assimilated by the body.Research in the field of nutrition studies the relationship between food and drink to health and disease, especially in determining an optimal diet. In the past, only limited research on nutrient malnutrition on disease prevention and benchmark the basic nutritional needs of living things. Figures nutritional needs (nutrients) the basic known internationally in terms of the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA).Along with medical and scientific developments in the field of molecular biology, medical evidence suggests that the RDA has not been sufficient to maintain optimal body function and prevent or help treat chronic diseases. Medical evidence suggests that the root of many chronic diseases is oxidative stress caused by excess free radicals in the body. The use of nutrients in optimum level, known as Optimal Daily Allowance (ODA), proven to prevent and deal with oxidative stress which helps the prevention of chronic diseases. This optimal level can be achieved when the number and composition of nutrients used appropriately. In the treatment of disease, the use of nutrition as a complementary treatment can help the effectiveness of treatment and at the same time cope with the side effects of treatment. Therefore, nutrition / nutrition is closely associated with optimal health and improved quality of life. Measurement results can be carried out by the method of anthropometry.ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTSNutrients are organic and inorganic chemicals found in food and is obtained for the use of bodily functions.Types of Nutrients1. CarbohydrateCarbohydrates are the elements of a composition comprising carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.Carbohydrates are divided into:
Simple carbohydrates (sugar), can be a monosaccharide (single molecule consisting of glucose, fructose, and galactose). Could also be a disaccharide (double molecules), an example sucrose (glucose + fructose), maltose (glucose + glucose), lactose (glucose + galactose).
Complex carbohydrates (starch) are polysaccharides have drawn many glucose molecules.
Fiber is a type of carbohydrate derived from plants, can not be digested by the body with little or no calories but can increase stool volume.2. FatFat is an energy source that is compacted. Fats and oils consist of glycerol combined with fatty acids.Fat function:
As a source of energy, an energy source that is compacted to provide 9 calories / gram.
Participate and build body tissues.
Insulation / isolation, the fat will prevent loss of body heat.
Feeling of fullness, fat may delay gastric emptying time and prevent hunger arise again soon after eating.
Fat-soluble vitamins.3. ProteinProtein is an important constituent of all cell types of nutrients in the form of nutrient complex structure consisting of amino acids. Be hydrolyzed protein by proteolytic enzymes. To release amino acids which will then be absorbed by the intestine.Protein function:
Protein replace protein lost during normal metabolic processes and the normal wear.
Proteins generate new tissue.
Protein is needed in the manufacture of new proteins with specific functions in the body, namely enzymes, hormones and hemoglobin.
Protein as an energy source.4. VitaminVitamins are organic materials that can not be formed by the body and serves as a catalyst for the body’s metabolic processes.There are two types of vitamins:
Fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, K.
Water-soluble vitamins are vitamin B and C (not stored in the body so it must be in the diet each day).5. Minerals and WaterMinerals are essential elements for the normal function of most enzymes, and is essential in the control of body fluid system. Minerals are essential constituents of the soft tissues, fluids and order. Order to contain most of the minerals. The body can not synthesize that must be provided by food.Three mineral functions:
Constituent of bones and teeth; example: calcium, magnesium, phosphorus.
Formation of soluble salts and controlling the composition of body fluids; example Na, Cl (extracellular), K, Mg, P (intracellular).
The basic ingredients of enzymes and proteins.MALNUTRITIONShortage of intake of nutrients, especially protein and carbohydrates. Can affect the growth, development, and cognition and may slow the healing process.Types of malnutrition:
Nutrient deficiency. Examples: eating less fruit and vegetables cause vitamin C deficiency can cause bleeding of the gums.
Marasmus: Lack of protein and calories so that the body fat and muscle unloading. Clinical features: muscle atrophy, disappearance of the subcutaneous fat layer, growth retardation, belly fat, very thin as bones wrapped in skin.
Kwashiorkor: protein deficiency due to a lack of dietary protein or protein that is lost due to physiological (eg state of injury and infection). Characteristics: weak, apathetic, enlarged liver, weight loss, muscle atrophy, mild anemia, changes in skin and hair pigmentation.MALNUTRITION EFFECTS OF BODY SYSTEM
Neurological / temperature regulation. Lowered basal metabolism and body temperature.
Mental status. Apathy, depression, easily aroused, cognitive impairment, difficulty making decisions.
Immune system. Production of white blood cells: The risk of infectious disease when leukocytes down.
Musculoskeletal. Decreased muscle mass, impaired coordination and dexterity.
Cardiovascular. Heart rhythm disorders, cardiac atrophy, cardiac pump down.
Respiratory. Respiratory muscle atrophy, pneumonia.
Gastrointestinal. Stool mass loss, decreased digestive enzymes, decreased absorption process, shorten the transit time, increase the growth of bacteria, diarrhea, reduce peristalsis.
Urinary system. Renal atrophy, change the filtration and fluid and electrolyte balance.
Liver and biliary system. Reduces glucose storage, reduces the production of glucose from amino acids, reducing protein synthesis.PLANNING FOODDishes are generally planned to provide a mix of different types of foods to suit your taste but nutritional knowledge must be translated into the practical things.Dietary guidelines can be realized in the following ways:• Eat a wide variety of foods. This will ensure that your diet contains all the nutrients in adequate amounts.• Reduce the consumption of sugar.• Increase fiber and starch in the diet with more food mashed rice, potatoes, vegetables and fruits.• Reduce the salt content in the diet by reducing processed foods and do not put excessive seasoning.• Reduce consumption of fat by eating less butter, replacing the burning frying or boiling.
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