Dysentery Nursing Care Plan, Pediatric Nursing
Dysentery is a inflammatory disorder of the intestine, especially the colon, which results in severe diarrhea containing mucus and / or blood in the stool. If left untreated, dysentery can be fatal.
Cause of Dysentery
Dysentery is usually caused by a bacterial or protozoan infection or infestation of parasitic worms, but can also be caused by chemical irritants or viral infection. The two most common causes are infection with a bacillus of the Shigella group, and infestation by an amoeba, Entamoeba histolytica. When it is caused by a bacillus called bacillary dysentery, and when it is caused by an amoeba called amoebic dysentery.
Symptoms of Dysentery
Dysentery symptoms can last for five days or even more. For some cases, the symptoms may be mild, while others suffer from severe diarrhea and vomiting or potentially cause dehydration. The following symptoms when exposed to dysentery:
- Pain in the abdomen
- Bloody diarrhea
- Nausea, with or without vomiting
However, if the infection is severe, people may experience other symptoms caused by dehydration:
- Decreased urine production
- Dry skin and mucous membranes
- Excessive thirst
- Fever and chills
- Muscle spasms
- Weight loss
- Yellowish white mucus
In cases of chronic dysentery, no effects after an acute attack. In severe cases, the body temperature will rise to 40 degrees Celsius to 40.6 degrees Celsius.
Prevention of Dysentery
Dysentery is spread as a result of poor hygiene.
To minimize the risk of these conditions, then it should be done on the prevention of dysentery:
- Avoid swallowing water in swimming pools or recreational water sources
- Make sure you drink water that has been purified or boiled water
- Drink bottled water when traveling
- Wash your hands with anti-bacterial soap after using the bathroom, changing diapers, before preparing and eating food.
- Avoid sharing towels with others
- Wash clothing or eating utensils of an infected person.
Nursing Care Plan for Dysentery
Noteworthy is the age. Episodes of diarrhea occurred in the first 2 years of life. Highest incidence is the age group 6-11 months. Most bacteria stimulate gut immunity against infection, it helps explain the decline insidence disease in older children. At the age of 2 years or more of active immunity begins to form. Most cases are due to an intestinal infection and asymptomatic enteric bacteria spread mainly clients are not aware of the infection. Economic status also influential, especially from the diet and treatment.
2. Main complaint
Defecation is more than 3 x
3. History of present illness
Defecation greenish yellow color, mixed with mucus and blood or mucus alone. Watery consistency, frequency is more than 3 times, spending time : 3-5 days (acute diarrhea), more than 7 days (prolonged diarrhea), more than 14 days (chronic diarrhea).
4. Past medical history
Never had diarrhea before, to those on long-term antibiotics or corticosteroids (candida albicans changes from saprophyte to parasite), food allergies, respiratory infections, UTI, OMA measles .
5. History of Nutrition
At toddler age children are given food as in adults, the portion given 3 times per day with additional fruit and milk. Malnutrition in toddler age children are particularly vulnerable. Way better food management, food hygiene and sanitation, hand-washing habits.
6. Family health history
There is one family that has diarrhea.
7. Environmental Health History
Food storage at room temperature, lacking hygiene, neighborhood .
8. Growth and development history
- Weight gain since age 1 -3 years ranged between 1.5-2.5 kg (average of 2 kg), a body length of 6-10 cm (mean 8 cm) per year.
- The increase in head circumference: 12cm 2 cm in the first year and second year and so on.
- Teething 8 pieces: additional milk teeth; first molars and canines, totaling 14-16 pieces
- Eruption of teeth: molars perama menusul canines.
- Psychosexual stages of development according to Sigmund Freud.